Polishing is the action of smoothing and making parts shiny by abrasion (hand or machine polishing) or work hardening (using a burnisher and vibratory grinding).
The primary polishing techniques in use today are:

– Hand polishing
– Automatic robotic polishing (e.g. BULA or MEPSA)
– Tribo finishing such as Rossler or Otec
– Pressurized abrasive paste such as Extrude Hone
– REM process: Acid attack to create oxide layers, then abrasion of these layers by medias such as those used in Tribo finishing
– Polishing by laser or electron beam such as Sodick

The goal of these polishing techniques is simply to obtain a beautiful finish or high quality surface state, which is usually
characterized by some combination of roughness, gloss, and/or brightness.
Deburring is the act of removing material, typically using a deburring file or a grinder. In small quantities this is usually accomplished using hand methods. When dealing with large batches of rather small parts, an automatic process such as barrel treatment can be used for deburring.